Student achievement has continued to demonstrate significant recovery over the past year based on performance on the spring 2023 Ohio State Tests. Overall, average English/language arts achievement has returned to pre-pandemic levels (or nearly so), while math achievement remains significantly lower. The math shortfalls are smallest in elementary grades but more pronounced in middle school grades. Analysis of “learning acceleration,” defined as faster one-year growth relative to pre-pandemic benchmarks, reveals similar trajectories in recovery from initial declines as suggested by the changes in average scores. Achievement on science and social studies has largely followed ELA and math performance, with students recording large declines in spring 2021 but also posting major rebounds since then. Despite average ELA scores largely rebounding to pre-pandemic benchmarks, some student subgroups (Black, Latino, and economically disadvantaged) and schools (urban districts and brick-and- mortar community schools) remain significantly behind these groups’ respective pre-pandemic achievement levels.