Based on the collaborative governance framework, this paper proposes four starting conditions that affect the establishment of intergovernmental collaboration: power imbalance, resource imbalance, prehistory of collaboration and participation of superior levels of government. The interaction of these conditions is tested with collaborative practice among local governments in China to control air pollution. The qualitative comparative analysis results show that wheel-shaped, umbrella-shaped and fan-shaped modes promote collaboration. Non-participation of superior levels of government and strong–strong competition modes inhibit collaboration. External leadership and internal leadership play important roles in the initiation of interlocal collaboration.
Liu, Yao, Jiannan Wu, Hongtao Yi, Jing Wen. 2021. Under What Conditions Do Governments Collaborate? A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Air Pollution Control in China. Public Management Review. 23(11), 1664-1682.