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Effectiveness of Broad and Specific Leadership Behaviors

Journal Title Personnel Review
Published Date August 23, 2018
Research Type
Authors Russell Hassan


Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine how task-oriented, relations-oriented and change oriented leader behaviors are related to managerial effectiveness and subordinate job satisfaction, to identify incorrect findings in a recent meta-analysis of these relationships and to verify that leader problem solving is an important task-oriented behavior.

Design/methodology/approach – In total, 235 employees were surveyed to measure 11 specific behaviors used by their leader, and again two weeks later to measure the two outcome variables. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess how the leader behaviors are related to each outcome.

Findings – Task-oriented, relations-oriented and change-oriented behaviors were all related significantly to managerial effectiveness, but only relations-oriented behavior was related significantly to subordinate job satisfaction. Problem solving was the task-oriented behavior with the strongest relationship to managerial effectiveness. Recognizing was the least important relations-oriented behavior for job satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications – Limitations included a convenience sample, common source data and possible effects of unmeasured situational variables. Ways to avoid these limitations in future research are suggested.

Practical implications – The findings can be used to improve leadership training and development for most managers. 

Yukl, G., Mahsud, R., Prussia, G., & Hassan, S. (2019). Effectiveness of Broad and Specific Leadership Behaviors. Personnel Review, 48, 774-783.