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Gender, Race, and Experiences of Workplace Incivility in Public Organizations

Journal Title Review of Public Personnel Administration
Published Date May 04, 2020
Research Type
Authors Russell Hassan


Workplace incivility can have deleterious effects on individuals and organizations such as decreased job satisfaction and commitment, employee turnover, and reductions in morale and performance. Moreover, these effects can be exacerbated for women and employees of color. However, few studies have examined predictors of incivility in public sector organizations. This study explores how public employees’ incivility experiences vary across social categories, specifically by gender and race. Data were collected with a survey from all employees of four local governments in North Carolina. The results of hierarchical linear modeling show that women experience more incivility than men, and that men and women of color experience fewer incidences of incivility than White men and women. We also find that race moderates the relationship between gender and workplace incivility. Specifically, women of color experience more incivility than men of color, but less incivility than White women. Finally, women are more likely than men to experience incivility in departments where women constitute the majority of the workforce. Implications of these results for human resource management in public organizations are discussed.

Smith, A. E., Hassan, S., Hatmaker, D.M, DeHart-Davis, L., & Humphrey, N. (2020). Gender, Race, and Experiences of Workplace Incivility in Public Organizations. Review of Public Personnel Administration.