In recent decades civil service systems have been subject to intense scrutiny and their role brought into question. The 2008 financial crash and the ensuing crisis did nothing to alleviate this pressure and now, caught between increased accountability and a significantly reduced budget, stretched civil service systems are faced with the challenge of getting better results with less funding. In this expanded and updated edition of a benchmark volume, a cast of international contributors compare and contrast civil services from around the world and the adaptations that have been made in order to cope with the new challenges of running public services in the 21st century. Going beyond the economic crisis and fiscal austerity, this collection provides key insights into important issues such as the impact of multi-level governance, issues of legality, efficiency and responsiveness, juridification, public sector motivation, and the values of civil service systems. Providing a systematic framework for analysis, this collection offers a comprehensive global study of a key government institution.